Hoe je in ongeveer 10 minuten een door React en Gatsby aangedreven blog bouwt

Disclaimer: dit is geschreven voor Gatsby versie 1, versie 2 is net vrijgegeven en er zijn enkele wijzigingen aangebracht. Ik zal daarvoor aan een andere tutorial werken.

Gatsby is een razendsnelle statische sitegenerator op basis van ReactJS.

Een statische sitegenerator (SSG) is een compromis tussen een hardgecodeerde HTML- statische site en een volledig CMS (Content Management System), zoals Wordpress.

Een SSG kan worden gebruikt om HTML-pagina's te genereren voor inhoudgestuurde websites (zoals blogs). Het enige dat nodig is, zijn gegevens voor de pagina-inhoud en de sjabloon om met inhoud te vullen.

Dit bericht wordt onderverdeeld in vijf secties:

  1. Ermee beginnen.
  2. Opmaakcomponenten maken.
  3. Blogposts maken.
  4. Nieuwe pagina's genereren op basis van blogpostgegevens.
  5. Maak een lijst met de markdown-bestanden van onze site op de bestemmingspagina.

We zullen een diepe duik nemen in Gatsby en enkele van zijn functies door een denkbeeldige statische blog te maken met de naam CodeStack. Mockup wordt hieronder weergegeven. Laten we gaan! ✌️

1. Aan de slag

Vereisten

Zorg er eerst voor dat Node.js op uw systeem is geïnstalleerd. Als dit niet het geval is, ga dan naar nodejs.org en installeer een recente versie voor je besturingssysteem.

Dit artikel gaat er ook van uit dat je kennis hebt van ReactJS.

Installeer de CLI

Gatsby heeft een opdrachtregelprogramma dat handige opdrachten biedt, zoals:

  • gatsby new: voor het bouwen van een nieuw Gatsby-project.
  • gatsby develop: voor het starten van een webontwikkelingsserver met hot-reload.
  • gatsby build: voor het bouwen van een productieklare versie van het project.

Om te installeren typt u het volgende op uw terminal en drukt u op enter:

npm install --global gatsby-cli

Laten we een projectmap maken codestack-blogen de terminal ernaartoe navigeren.

gatsby new codestack-blog && cd $_

Als u uitvoert gatsby developop de projectmap, zou de scaffold site er als volgt uit moeten zien:

Plug-ins toevoegen

Gatsby heeft een grote en groeiende set plug-ins. Het zijn in wezen Node.js-pakketten die communiceren met de API's van Gatsby.

Ze kunnen via NPM (Node Package Manager) op de terminal worden geïnstalleerd en hebben over het algemeen drie categorieën: functionele , bron- en transformatorplug- ins.

Functionele plug-ins

Deze plug-ins zorgen voor extra functionaliteit op een Gatsby-site of in zijn ontwikkelomgeving. Voor onze app hebben we nodig:

  • gatsby-plugin-react-helmet: maakt wijziging van de headtags mogelijk. Merk op dat het al is geïnstalleerd in ons steigerproject.
  • gatsby-plugin-catch-links: Onderschept lokale links van markdown- en andere niet-reagerende pagina's en voert een pushState aan de clientzijde uit om te voorkomen dat de browser de pagina moet vernieuwen.

Installeer de plug-ins, of alleen de tweede plug-in.

npm install gatsby-plugin-react-helmet gatsby-plugin-catch-links

Elke keer dat we een nieuwe plug-in toevoegen, moeten we het gatsby-config.jsbestand bijwerken met de nieuwe plug-in, zodat Gatsby het herkent en gebruikt. We gebruiken back-ticks .

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, ],}

Bronplug-ins

Deze plug-ins 'bron' gegevens van externe of lokale locaties in wat Gatsby knooppunten noemt . Om onze berichten in Markdown op onze lokale schijf te schrijven, hebben we het volgende nodig:

  • gatsby-source-filesystem: verzamelt gegevens over bestanden uit het bestandssysteem van uw computer.
npm install gatsby-source-filesystem

Werk het gatsby-config.jsbestand bij:

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, { resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`, options: { path: `${__dirname}/src/pages`, name: 'pages', }, } ],}

Wat is hier aan de hand? Een optionsobject kan worden doorgegeven aan een plug-in voor meer configuratie. We passeren het bestandssysteem path(dwz waar onze Markdown-bestanden zich zullen bevinden), en vervolgens een namevoor de bronbestanden, zodat Gatsby weet wat onze bronbestanden zijn en waar de transformer-plug-ins moeten worden toegepast.

Transformator-plug-ins

Deze plug-ins transformeren onbewerkte gegevens van knooppuntenin bruikbare dataformaten. We hebben bijvoorbeeld nodig:

  • gatsby-transformer-remark: dit zet blogposts die in markdown- .mdbestanden op de lokale schijf zijn geschreven, om in HTML voor weergave.
npm install gatsby-transformer-remark

Werk het gatsby-config.jsbestand opnieuw bij.

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, { resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`, options: { path: `${__dirname}/src/pages`, name: 'pages', }, }, `gatsby-transformer-remark`, ],}

2. Opmaakcomponenten maken

Gatsby lets you easily create “layout components.” Layout components are sections of your site that you want to share across multiple pages. For the blog we are building, these are the header and the sidebars.

From the root folder, take a look at src/layouts. You’ll discover an index.js file where we define layout components. index.css already came with styles.

After exploring the index.js file, you’ll see that two components have already been created: Header and TemplateWrapper. In TemplateWrapper, we wrap the contents of our site with layout components that we want to be present across multiple pages.

This is made possible by the children() props. It will render all non-layout components of our site where it is placed. Notice that unlike React children props, the children prop passed to layout components is a function and needs to be executed.

First of all, create a new folder and CSS file at src/styles/layout-overide.css. Add to the list of imports in the index.js file. We need to Import it after index.css to override some existing style rules.

import React from 'react'import PropTypes from 'prop-types'import Link from 'gatsby-link'import Helmet from 'react-helmet'
import './index.css'import "../styles/layout-overide.css";

Open layout-overide.css and paste the following styles rules. No need to figure these out.

* { background: #f5f5f5; color: black;}html { height: 100%;}
body { height: 100%; border: 5px solid #ffdb3a;}
h1 { font-size: 1.5rem; line-height: 0.5rem;}
p, div { font-size: 16px;}

Update the header component.

const Header = () => ( 

CodeStack

);

Also, create a Sidebar component.

const Sidebar = (props) => (
{props.title}. {props.description} 
);

We desire the Sidebar and rendered {children()} components to behave in a responsive way like this:

Since there’s no easy way to define media queries in React, I found a library called react-media, a CSS media query component for React. Install it.

npm install --save react-media

It provides a ia> component that listens for matches to a CSS media query and renders stuff based on whether the query matches or not.

Add it to the list of imports in our file.

import Media from 'react-media'

Lets layout everything in ( Header, Sidebar, and children() components) the way we wish in TemplateWrapper. Make the following changes (pardon the shameless plug of my name):

const TemplateWrapper = ({ children }) => ( {matches => matches ? ( {children()} ) : ( {children()} 
 ) } );

Whats happening in that monolithic block of code? React media is using a Ternary operation to determine what to render based on a maxWidth of 848px . When the screen matches the width, only Header and children() components are rendered.

 {matches => matches ? ( ...stuff to render... ) : ( ...stuff to render... ) } 

If you noticed, we also used Flexbox to layout the positions of the children() and Sidebar components.

Run gatsby develop on the terminal and our static blog should look this way now:

3. Creating Blog posts

Now lets get into creating actual blog posts. Gatsby utilizes GraphQL to fetch data from one or many sources such as your local disk, Wordpress API, and so on.

Personally, I like the fact that I can create a static blog and fetch content from a WordPress API. My client has access to the Wordpress Editor where he creates posts, and I avoid dealing with all the hassles of developing a Wordpress site.

In this post, we will load the data from Markdown files we will create on our local disk. The gatsby-source-filesystem plugin we configured earlier expects our content to be in src/pages, so that’s exactly where we’ll put it!

A typical practice for blog posts is to name the folder something like MM-DD-YYYY-title. You can name it whatever you like or just place a markdown file inside the /pages folder.

Let’s create a folder src/pages/12–22–2017-first-post, and place an index.md inside. Write:

---path: "/hello-world"date: "2017-07-12T17:12:33.962Z"title: "My First Gatsby Post"---
Oooooh-weeee, my first blog post!
First post Ipsum is a major key to success. Congratulations, you played yourself. Surround yourself with angels. Celebrate success right, the only way, apple. The key is to drink coconut, fresh coconut, trust me. Egg whites, turkey sausage, wheat toast, water. Of course they don’t want us to eat our breakfast, so we are going to enjoy our breakfast. 

The block surrounded in dashes is referred to as frontmatter. The data we specify here, as well as other Markdown files, will be recognized by the gatsby-transformer-remark plugin.

The plugin will convert the frontmatter metadata part of your markdown file to frontmatter and the content part (Yippeeee, my first blog post!) to HTML.

When we begin generating blog pages directly from markdown files in section 4 (next section), path will be used to specify the URL path to render the file. For instance, the markdown file above will be rendered at localhost:8000/hello-world.

Before that, lets create a template that will render any markdown file into its own blog page. Create the file src/templates/blog-post.js (please create thesrc/templates folder).

import React from "react";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
export default function Template({ data }) { const post = data.markdownRemark; return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

);}

We’ve set up the Template component to receive a data object which will come from the GraphQL query we are about to write.

Once again, the GraphQL query is needed to fetch data into the component. The result of the query is injected by Gatsby into the Template component as data and markdownRemark.

We will find that the markdownRemark property contains all the details of the Markdown file.

Lets now actually make the query. It should be placed below the Template component:

export const pageQuery = graphql` query BlogPostByPath($path: String!) { markdownRemark(frontmatter: { path: { eq: $path } }) { html frontmatter { date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path title } } }`;

If you’re not familiar with GraphQL, I’ll try to break down what’s going on here. To learn more about GraphQL, consider this excellent resource.

GraphQL is just Facebook’s idea of a certain type of server. They’ve written a specification on the kind of requests that can be sent to that server and how the server should respond. GraphQL’s API is better than REST, because you describe the exact data the client-side needs so there’s no more under-fetching or over-fetching of data.

This means you have to create your own GraphQL server. Fortunately for us, GatsbyJS comes with its own GraphQL server out of the box.

In the code above, BlogPostByPath is the underlying query which will result in a blog post being returned. It will be returned as data for injection into the Template component.

We pass BlogPostByPath the $path argument to return a blog post related to the path we are currently viewing.

Furthermore, recall markdownRemark transformed our markdown files. It will be treated as a property whose contents will be available via data.markdownRemark.

We could access the HTML via data.markdownRemark.html. Also, the frontmatter content we created with a block of dahes can be accessed via data.markdownRemark.title etc.

The entire blog-template.js should look like this:

import React from "react";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
export default function Template({ data }) { const post = data.markdownRemark; return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

);}
export const pageQuery = graphql` query BlogPostByPath($path: String!) { markdownRemark(frontmatter: { path: { eq: $path } }) { html frontmatter { date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path title } } }`;

At this point:

  • We have a bunch of plugins installed to perform some utilities as well as load files off of disk and transform Markdown to HTML.
  • We have a single, lonely Markdown file that will be rendered as a blog post.
  • We have a React template for rendering blog posts in a layout, as well as a wired up GraphQL to query for blog post data and inject the React template with the queried data.

Sweet!

4. Generating new pages from blog post data.

Gatsby provides a Node API, which provides functionality for creating dynamic pages from blog posts. This API is exposed in thegatsby-node.js file in the root directory of your project. This file could export several Node APIs but we are interested in the createPages API.

Utilize the following block of code snippet as provided in the official docs (Note that blogPostTemplate path was set to reflect ours):

const path = require('path');
exports.createPages = ({ boundActionCreators, graphql }) => { const { createPage } = boundActionCreators;
const blogPostTemplate = path.resolve(`src/templates/blog-post.js`);
return graphql(`{ allMarkdownRemark( sort: { order: DESC, fields: [frontmatter___date] } limit: 1000 ) { edges { node { excerpt(pruneLength: 250) html id frontmatter { date path title } } } } }`) .then(result => { if (result.errors) { return Promise.reject(result.errors); }
result.data.allMarkdownRemark.edges .forEach(({ node }) => { createPage({ path: node.frontmatter.path, component: blogPostTemplate, context: {} // additional data can be passed via context }); }); });}

Check if it works. I recommend closing your broswer window, stoppingthe gatsby develop server from the terminal using ctrl c. Now run gatsby develop again and open //localhost:8000/hello-world.

Create another file src/pages/24–12–2017-learning-grid/index.md

---path: "/another-one"date: "2017-07-12T17:12:33.962Z"title: "My Second Gatsby Post"---
In life there will be road blocks but we will over come it. Special cloth alert. Don’t ever play yourself. The key to more success is to get a massage once a week, very important, major key, cloth talk.
// some css grid code 

Again, close your broswer window, stop gatsby develop server. Run gatsby develop again and open //localhost:8000/another-one. This is shown:

Go on if you wish and create your own pages. ✌

5. Create a list of our site’s markdown files in the landing page.

The default landing page that comes with the scaffolded Gatsby site is located at src/pages/index.js. This is where we would define a template, and make a query to inject it with data for the list of .md files. Do this:

import React from "react";import Link from "gatsby-link";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
import '../styles/blog-listing.css';
export default function Index({ data }) { const { edges: posts } = data.allMarkdownRemark; return ( {posts .filter(post => post.node.frontmatter.title.length > 0) .map(({ node: post }) => { return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

{post.frontmatter.date}

{post.excerpt}

); })} );}
export const pageQuery = graphql` query IndexQuery { allMarkdownRemark(sort: { order: DESC, fields: [frontmatter___date] }) { edges { node { excerpt(pruneLength: 250) id frontmatter { title date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path } } } } }`;

I trust you are badass at this point and already familiar with whats going on. Note that we wrote an import above that does not exist. Now create the file /styles/blog-listing.css:

div.blog-post-preview { border-bottom: 2px solid #e6e6e6; padding-top: 1rem; padding-bottom: 1rem; margin-bottom: 1rem;}
h1 > * { font-size: 1.2rem; text-decoration-line: none;}
h2 { font-size: 0.8rem !important; font-weight: 100 !important;}

Restart the server, visit the landing page, and you should see the listing at work:

Conclusion

We have come to the end of this tutorial. Thank you for reading thus far.

This post is just the tip of the iceberg considering the amount of things you could do with Gatsby. Feel free to explore how you could implement:

  • Search functionality
  • The use of tags to categorize blog posts
  • Deploying your Gatsby site

You can grab the final source code here. Feel free to support me (devapparel.co) and look good while at it. Also, Comment or Share this post. Thanks for reading!

P.S I am working on a React book with Ohans Emmanuel that would have you master React by building 30 small projects in 30 days. If you want to stay updated on this, join the mailing list. Thanks!